First, the camera module (CCM) introduction:
1. Camera close-up
The camera module, the full name of the Camera Compact Module, hereinafter referred to as CCM, is an electronic device that is crucial for image capture. First come to the close-up, all kinds of looks, but I used to debug it a bit ugly.
2. The working principle of the camera, the role of the camera components
If you want to understand it completely, you have to go deeper. If it is the code, we will analyze it step by step. If we are a module, we will break it down and see how he works. Look at what it is made of, as shown below:
(1) Working principle: The light collected by the object through the lens is converted into an electrical signal by a CMOS or CCD integrated circuit, and then converted into a digital image signal by an internal image processor (ISP) to be output to a digital signal. The processor (DSP) processes and converts the image signals into standard GRB, YUV and other formats.
(2) CCM contains four major components: lens, sensor, soft board (FPC), image processing chip (DSP). The important components that determine the quality of a camera are: lens, image processing chip (DSP), sensor. The key technologies of CCM are: optical design technology, aspheric mirror fabrication technology, and optical coating technology.
The lens is the soul of the camera. The lens plays an important role in the imaging effect. It uses the refraction principle of the lens. The scene light passes through the lens to form a clear image on the focal plane, through the CMOS or CCD. The photoreceptor records an image of the subject. Lens manufacturers are mainly concentrated in Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. The lens industry with high optical technology has a relatively high threshold. The well-known companies in the industry such as Fuji Seiki, Konica Minolta, Da Liguang, Enplas, etc.
The sensor is the core module of CCM. There are two widely used ones: one is a widely used CCD (charge-coupled) component; the other is a CMOS (complementary metal oxide conductor) device.
Charge Coupled Device (CCD), which is made of a high-sensitivity semiconductor material that converts light into electric charge and converts it into a digital signal through an analog-to-digital converter chip. The CCD consists of many photosensitive units, usually in megapixels. When the CCD surface is exposed to light, each photosensitive unit reflects the charge on the component, and the signals generated by all the photosensitive units are added together to form a complete picture. The CCD sensor module is dominated by Japanese manufacturers, and more than 90% of the global scale market is monopolized by Japanese manufacturers, with Sony, Panasonic and Sharp as the leaders.
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) is a semiconductor made of two elements, silicon and germanium, which coexist with N (band-electric) and P (band + electric) in CMOS. The level of semiconductor, the current generated by these two complementary effects can be recorded and interpreted by the processing chip into an image. CMOS sensors are mainly led by the United States, Taiwan and South Korea. The main manufacturers are OmniVision, Agilent, Micron, Taiwan’s sharp image, original phase, Thai TV, etc., South Korea’s Samsung, Hyundai.
Image processing chip (DSP) is an important part of CCM. Its function is to transfer the data obtained by the sensor chip to the central processor and refresh the sensor chip in time. Therefore, the quality of the DSP chip directly affects the picture quality (such as color saturation). Degree, clarity, etc.).
FPC flexible circuit board (flexible PCB): Referred to as “soft board”, also known as “flexible circuit board”, connecting chips and mobile phones. It plays the role of electrical signal transmission.
3. The assembly method of the camera module
(1) Fixed focus module assembly drawing
CCM is divided into fixed focus module and automatic zoom module. The fixed focus module is mainly assembled by lens, mirror base, photosensitive integrated circuit, flexible circuit board, reinforcing and steel sheet. The assembly drawing is as follows:
(2) Automatic zoom module assembly drawing
I didn’t know how the optical zoom on the phone would work. I thought that those are all flickering people. Look at this picture and understand it. If you don’t know, look at this picture. There is a voice coil motor inside. Only high-pixel modules are available, so let’s not know how to optically zoom.
The automatic zoom module consists of a lens, a voice coil motor, a base bracket, a photosensitive integrated circuit, a driver integrated circuit and a connector. The assembly drawing is as follows:
(3) 3D module
How the legendary 3D is going to happen, with a few more cameras.
Look at people’s mobile phones, I don’t think it looks good, high-tech things start to be ugly, we know that there is this thing.